Log in

A brief introduction to Nuirn: gerunds (etymology and formation) - Constructed Languages

> Recent Entries
> Archive
> Friends
> Profile
> Language Creation Society

Language Creation Society
Language Construction Kit
Lexical Semantics of a Machine Translation Interlingua
On the Design of an Ideal Language

November 19th, 2013

Previous Entry Share Next Entry
03:51 pm - A brief introduction to Nuirn: gerunds (etymology and formation)

The Nuirn gerund is the third principal part of a Nuirn verb (present/infinitive stem, subjunctive stem, gerund, and preterit are the four parts). Like the principal parts of Greek or Latin verbs, it is lexical. It functions as a verbal noun, and takes the place of functions that English would express using a participle or infinitive. It serves as the complement of several auxiliary verbs. Most importantly, it is used to express the "eventive" or "progressive" tenses in Nuirn, and expresses tense and aspect by being the object of a number of prepositional idioms.

The etymology of the gerund is complicated, and suppletion is very common, especially in the paradigms of frequently used verbs. Quite a few verbs admit of variant forms. Some verbs have two, that are used in separate senses.

The most basic suffixes used to form it are -edd, -add. -eþ, and -(e)aþ (/-əð, -əθ/); these suffixes continue Swedish -het, German -heit and -keit. They are common among less frequent verbs; derived verbs formed in -ere, -ara, and -(a)isère almost always have -eredd, -araþ, and -(a)isèredd as their gerunds. Noun derived verbs like cegle, "to bowl", likewise use cegledd.

The suffix often gets changed to -es, -as, or hardened to -(e)ach, -(e)acht, -t, -þ, and on occasion to -f. Some are irregularly spelled by custom. And others are simply oncelers.

durra              dare                         durras

caoine            sing                           caint

tyne                care about                tyneacht

tróa                believe in                 trówydd, also regular tróedd (both /tɾuː.ɨð/)

Here are some frequently used verbs and their verbal nouns:

hafa               have                            heft

---                   do                                deanfaí* /ˈdʲa.nə.ˌvi/

Note: Nuirn has much less call for a verb 'to do' than English. Deanfaí is a defective verb, more or less a placeholder or kadigan verb rather like 'do' is in English. It is used in greetings such as "how are you doing?" (hvait ag deanfaí þu? /kətʲ ə /ˈdʲa.nə.ˌvi ðu:/)

aia                 say                              aiteas

                 go                                gengd

ían                   go                                íedd

fáa                 get                               fengd

gière               make                          gièrdd, gièrt

uète                know                           uíteaga, cend*

huga               think                           hugaid (trans., "to hold the opinion that")                                                                     hugaìnder (intrans., "ponder") After:

---                   remember                 sufaìnder

taga                take                            teacht

sée                 see                              síocht

còmma           come                           cemd, comd

þele                 want                           þeledd, þelesme

bruca              use                             brucaþ

findhe             find                             faint

gife                  give                             gáfa

sceala            tell                               iscèilte

yrce                work                           arfaid* ("to labor at a job")

                                                           yrcedd ("to shape, form, build")

calla               call                              call

hette               to be named              (y)hett

søce                try                               socht

speire             ask                              spørf

fáa                  need                            faodach(t)

In stative constructions fáa "need" and "get" tend to fall together, but in eventive constructions the two are distinguished.

smíe                feel                              smacht

blíe                  become                       blefit

lefne                leave                           left

stige                put                              steig

(be)tide          mean                          (be)tidsel

hálla               keep                            hált

láta                 let                                látt

beginne          begin                           beginsel

hopa               hope                            hofaint, also hofaìnder

hièlpe              help                             hilf

tala                 talk                             taladd

uèrþe              turn                            uairþ

børghe           start                            borgaid

vise                 show                           visedd

heyre              hear                            éisteacht*, éisteachod*

spile                play                             speilt

irne                 run                              irneaþ

fara                 travel                          ferdd

elsce               like                              éilis

life                   live                              lifedd

tróa               believe                        trówydd

euchna           own                             egeint

bara               carry                           berdd

ete, ethe         eatt                             itheadd, itheagh

riste                write                           ristedd, scríofaþ*

affla                provide                       afflaid

sitte                sit                                sitteþ

stáa                stand                          stent

*Suppletive forms

(2 comments | Leave a comment)


(Deleted comment)
[User Picture]
Date:November 20th, 2013 09:29 pm (UTC)
A too short and sketchy introduction to the way the spellings work is in this post.

Edited at 2013-11-20 09:29 pm (UTC)

> Go to Top